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中考英语各种时态基本用法介绍(跟踪练习100题)  

2010-09-03 13:11:51|  分类: 英语学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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中考英语各种时态基本用法介绍 

 


一般现在时的功能
  1.表示事物或人物的特征、状态。如:The sky is blue.天空是蓝色的。
  2.表示经常性或习惯性的动作。如:I get up at six every day.我每天六点起床。
  3.表示客观现实。如:The earth goes around the sun.地球绕着太阳转。

  一般现在时的构成
  1. be动词:主语+be(am,is,are)+其它。如:
  I am a boy.我是一个男孩。
  2.行为动词:主语+行为动词(+其它)。如:
  We study English.我们学习英语。
  当主语为第三人称单数(he, she,it)时,要在动词后加"-s"或"-es"。如:Mary likes Chinese.玛丽喜欢汉语。
  一般现在时的变化
  1. be动词的变化。
  否定句:主语+ be + not +其它。  如:He is not a worker.他不是工人。
  一般疑问句:Be +主语+其它。  如:-Are you a student?     -Yes. I am. / No, I'm not.
  特殊疑问句:疑问词+一般疑问句。如:Where is my bike?
  2.行为动词的变化。
  否定句:主语+ don't( doesn't ) +动词原形(+其它)。如:  I don't like bread.
  当主语为第三人称单数时,要用doesn't构成否定句。如:  He doesn't often play.
  一般疑问句:Do( Does ) +主语+动词原形+其它。如:

- Do you often play football? - Yes, I do. / No, I don't.
  当主语为第三人称单数时,要用does构成一般疑问句。如:
  - Does she go to work by bike?  - Yes, she does. / No, she doesn't.
  特殊疑问句:疑问词+一般疑问句。如:How does your father go to work?
动词+s的变化规则
1.一般情况下,直接加-s,如:cook-cooks, milk-milks
2.以s. x. sh. ch. o结尾,加-es,如:guess-guesses, wash-washes, watch-watches, go-goes
3.以“辅音字母+y”结尾,变y为i, 再加-es,如:study-studies
现在进行时
1.现在进行时表示现在正在进行或发生的动作,也可表示当前一段时间内的活动或现阶段正在进行的动作。
2.现在进行时的肯定句基本结构为be+动词ing.
3.现在进行时的否定句在be后加not。
4.现在进行时的一般疑问句把be动词调到句首。
5.现在进行时的特殊疑问的基本结构为:疑问词+ be + 主语 + 动词ing?
   但疑问词当主语时其结构为:    疑问词+ be + 动词ing?
动词加ing的变化规则
1.一般情况下,直接加ing,如:cook-cooking
2.以不发音的e结尾,去e加ing,如:make-making, taste-tasting
3.如果末尾是一个元音字母和一个辅音字母,双写末尾的辅音字母,再加ing,如:run-running, stop-stopping
一般过去时
1.一般过去时表示过去某个时间发生的动作或存在的状态,常和表示过去的时间状语连用。一般过去时也表示过去经常或反复发生的动作感谢。
2.Be动词在一般过去时中的变化:主+were/was +其它成分
⑴am 和is在一般过去时中变为was。(was not=wasn’t)
⑵are在一般过去时中变为were。(were not=weren’t)
⑶带有was或were的句子,其否定、疑问的变化和is, am, are一样,即否定句在was或were后加not,一般疑问句把was或were调到句首。
3.句中没有be动词的一般过去时的句子   主+过去式 +其它成分
   否定句:didn’t +动词原形,如:Jim didn’t go home yesterday.
   一般疑问句:在句首加did,句子中的动词过去式变回原形。如:Did Jim go home yesterday?
   特殊疑问句:⑴疑问词+did+主语+动词原形?如:        What did Jim do yesterday?
⑵疑问词当主语时:疑问词+动词过去式?如:Who went to home yesterday?
动词过去式变化规则:
1.一般在动词末尾加-ed,如:pull-pulled, cook-cooked
2.结尾是e加d,如:taste-tasted
3.末尾只有一个元音字母和一个辅音字母的重读闭音节,应双写末尾的辅音字母,再加-ed,如:stop-stopped
4.以“辅音字母+y”结尾的,变y为i, 再加-ed,如:study-studied
5.不规则动词过去式:
am,is-was, are-were, do-did, see-saw, say-said, give-gave, get-got, go-went, come-came, have-had, eat-ate, take-took, run-ran, sing-sang, put-put, make-made, read-read, write-wrote, draw-drew, drink-drank, fly-flew, ride-rode, speak-spoke, sweep-swept, swim-swam, sit-sat
过去进行时态精讲    主+were(was)+现在分词 +其它成分

一、概念和用法:
1) 概念:表示过去某时正在进行的状态或动作。
2) 过去进行时的主要用法是描述一件事发生的背景;一个长动作发生的时候,另一个短动作发生。
3) 常用的时间状语this morning, the whole morning, all day yesterday, from nine to ten last evening, when, while例如:We were watching TV from seven to nine last night. 昨天晚上七点到九点的时候我们在看电视。          

What was he researching all day last Sunday? 上周日他一整天都在研究什么?
        My brother fell while he was riding his bicycle and hurt himself. 我哥哥骑自行车的时候从车上摔下来,受伤了。
  It was raining when they left the station. 他们离开车站的时候天正在下雨。
  When I got to the top of the mountain, the sun was shining. 当我到达山顶的时候,阳光灿烂。

二、 过去进行时可以表示在过去某个时间点发生的事情。时间点可以用介词短语、副词或从句来表示。如:
  What was she doing at nine o'clock yesterday? 昨天晚上九点她在做什么? (介词短语表示时间点)
  When I saw him he was decorating his room. 当我看见他的时候他正在装饰房间。 (when从句表示时间点)

三、 在复合句中,如果主要动作和背景动作都是延续的或同时发生的,那么主从句的动词都可用过去进行时。例如:
  While he was waiting for the bus, he was reading a newspaper.他边等车边看报。 (两个动作都是延续的)
  He was cleaning his car while I was cooking. 他擦车时我在做饭。(两个动作同时进行)

四、 通常不能用于过去进行时的动词主要有:agree, be, believe, belong, care, forget, hate, have(拥有), hear, know, like, love, mean, mind, notice, own, remember, seem, suppose, understand, want, wish等。例如:
  误:I was knowing the answer.
  正:I knew the answer. 我知道答案。

  误:I wasn't understanding him.
  正:I didn't understand him. 我不明白他的意思。

五、典型例题
1) Mary ___ a dress when she cut her finger.
A. made  B. is making  C. was making  D. makes
  答案C. 割伤手指是已发生的事情,应用过去时。同 时,when表时间的同时性,"玛丽在

做衣服时"提供事情发生的背景,因此用过去进行时。

2) As she ___ the newspaper, Granny ___ asleep.
read; was falling B. was reading; fell C. was reading; was falling D. read;fell
  答案B.句中的as = when, while,意为"当……之时"。描述一件事发生的背景时,用过去进行;一个长动作发生的时候,另一个短动作发生。句意为 "在她看报纸时,奶奶睡着了。"句中的 fell (fall的过去时),是系动词,后跟形容词,如:fall sick。


一般将来时 

 一。主+will+v.+其它

二.主+be going to+v.+其它

三.主+be +v.ing+其它, 此类常为移位动词。如:go,come ,leave,arrive,move,leave for,fly(飞),

take off,(起飞)set off,drive等

结构用法精讲
一、be going to 的用法点拨 :be going to 是一种固定结构,它后面要接动词原形。含有be going to 结构

的句子中往往有表示将来的时间状语,如:tomorrow, next week等。
1、用来表示按计划或安排要发生的动作,有“准备;打算”的意思。这种主观意图,一般已做过事先安排,

故其实现的可能性较大,其主语常是人。
We are going to have a class meeting this afternoon.今天下午我们打算开班会。(安排)
2、表示根据现有情况、某种迹象,判断将要或即将发生的动作。此时不含有主观意图,只是表示说话人对

客观事态发展的判断或推测,此时主语可以是人,也可以是物。例如:
Look at the black clouds. It's going to rain.看那些乌云,快要下雨了。(推测)
I”m not feeling well, I”m going to be ill. 我感觉不是很好,可能要生病了。(表示说话人的感觉而已)

若表示客观现象则只能用主+will+v.+其它,如: I will be 18 years old next year.

It will be sunny tomorrow.
二、be going to 在肯定句中的形式
be going to 结构中的助动词be很少用原形,be随主语人称和数的变化而变化,它一般有三种形式,am , is ,

are 。而going to 固定不变。即:当主语是 I 时用am ;当主语是第三人称单数时用is;当主语是其他人

称时用are。
I am going to buy something tomorrow morning.明天早上我要去买些东西。
She is going to see Mr. Wang this afternoon.她打算今天下午去看望王先生。
三、含be going to 的句子变否定句和一般疑问句的变法
由于句子中有助动词be,因此be going to 的否定句和一般疑问句的构成很容易,即在be (am, is, are) 的

后面加上not 就构成了否定句;把be (am, is, are) 放到句首,在句末加问号就构成了一般疑问句,其答语为:Yes, 主语+ am/is/are. / No, 主语+ isn't/aren't. / No, I'm not.不过 I am... 在改为一般疑问句时常常改为“Are you ....?”。例如:
They are going to see the car factory next week. (肯定句)
They are not going to see the car factory next week. (否定句)
—Are they going to see the car factory next week?
—Yes, they are. (No, they aren't.) (一般疑问句及其回答)
四、使用be going to 应注意的两点
1.There be 句型的be going to 结构为:There is / are going to be... (注意句型中going to 后面的be不

能改为have。) 常用来表示将有某事发生。例如:
There is going to be a football match next Saturday in our school.
下周六我们学校将有一场足球比赛。
2.come, go, leave, arrive等表示位置移动的动词常用现在进行时表示将要发生的动作,它们很少与be going to 结构连用。例如:
Miss Sun is coming tonight.今晚孙小姐要来。
They are going to the park next Friday. 下星期五他们打算去公园。
4. “be going to +动词原形”结构与表示将来的时间状语是否连用,在意思上有所差别。如果其后有明确的时间状语,则表示该动作或状态发生的可能性较大;反之,则表示一种推测,表示未来可能发生的事情。例如:
There is going to be a film in our school this evening. 今晚我们学校将有一场电影。(一定会发生)
Hurry up! We are going to be late. 快点!我们要迟到了。(仅表示一种推测)


现在完成时的用法     主+have(has)+过去分词 +其它成分
1.现在完成时用来表示现在之前已发生活或完成的动作或状态,但其结果却和现在有联系,也就是说,动作或状态发生在过去但它的影响现在还存在.
I have lost my wallet.(含义是:现在我没有钱花了.)
Jane has laid the table.(含义是:已可以吃饭了.)
Michael has been ill.(含义是:现在仍然很虚弱)
He has returned from abroad. (含义是:现在已在此地)
2. 现在完成时可以用来表示发生在过去某一时刻的,持续到现在的情况,常与for ,since连用.
Mary has been ill for three days.
I have lived here since 1998.
3. 现在完成时往往同表示不确定的过去时间状语连用,如already, yet, just, before, recently, lately等:
He has already obtained a scholarship.
I haven't seen much of him recently (lately).
We have seen that film before.
Have they found the missing child yet
4. 现在完成时常常与表示频度的时间状语连用,如often, some times, ever, never, twice, on several occasion等:
Have you ever been to Beijing
I have never heard Bunny say anything against her.
I have used this pen only three times. It is still good.
George has met that gentleman on several occasions.
5. 现在完成时还往往可以同包括现在时间在内的时间状语连用,如now, up to these few days/weeks/months/years, this morning/week/month/year, now, just, today, up to present, so far等:
Peter has written six papers so far.
Man has now learned to release energy from the nucleus of the atom.
There has bee too much rain in San Francisco this year.
The friendly relations and cooperation between our two countries have been enhanced in the past few years.
Up to the present everything has been successful.
6. 现在完成时表示现在之前业已完成的动作,虽然其效果或影响仍然存在但已不再继续,但是有一些现在完成时的句子,在后面加上for+一段时间,则现在完成时的动作就表示延续性.
Thomas has studied Russian. (现在不再学俄语)
Thomas has studied Russian for three years. (=Thomas began to study Russian three years ago, and is still studying it now.(同第2点用法第一个例句)
7. 现在完成时还可以用来表示过去的一个时间到现在这段时间内重复发生的动作.
We have had four texts this semester.
===================
现在完成时的“完成用法”和“未完成用法”
1.现在完成时的"完成用法"
现在完成时的"完成用法"指的是动作发生在过去某一时刻并已结束,但该动作对现在产生了影响,与现在情况具有因果关系。
例如:He has turned off the light.他已把灯关了。(动作结束于过去,但说明的是现在的情况--灯现在不亮了。)
现在完成时"完成用法"的特点是动作不延续,因此,该时态只能与表示不定的过去时间状语 (如:already,yet,before,recently等)、频度时间状语(如:never,ever,once等)、包括现在时刻在内的时间状 语(如:this morning / month /year...,today等)连用。
例如: Have you found your pen yet?你已找到你的钢笔了吗?
2.现在完成时的"未完成用法"
现在完成时的"未完成用法"指的是动作开始于过去某一时刻,一直延续到现在,或可能还要继续下去。
例如:He has lived here since 1978.自从1978年以来,他一直住在这儿。(动作起始于1978年,一直住到现在,可能还要继续住下去。)
I have been in the army for more than 5 years.我在部队已经呆了五年多了。(动作开始于5年前,一直延续至今,有可能还要继续下去。)
此种用法的句中常需一个表示一段时间的状语(由since或for引导),或表示与现在时刻相连的时间状语(如:up to now,so far)等。
例如:I have heard nothing from him up to now.到目前为止我没有他的任何消息。
注意:(1)现在完成时的未完成用法只适用于延续性动词,不可用于终止性动词,即瞬间完成或延续时间很短的动词。如:come,go,arrive,leave,join,become,die等。
(2)现在完成时常见两种句型:
①主语+have / has been+for短语
②It is+一段时间+ since从句
例如:He has been in the League for three years.或It is three years since he joined the League. 他入团已三年了过去完成时态

总体上说它属于“过去”这一时间段内发生的事情,它表达的是在某个过去动作或时间点之前发生的动作,简单地说就是“过去的过去”发生的事情。

过去完成时的构成很简单,即 had + 动词的过去分词。例如:had done, had gone, had built 等等。

一、过去完成时的主要用法

1、表示在过去动作之前已经发生的动作或存在的状态。比如说,A事件发生在一个月前,而B事件发生两个月前,那么B事件比A事件还要早发生,它就要使用过去完成时。

例如:Most of the guest had left when he arrived at the party. (即:客人在他到之前已经离开了。)

They had already had breakfast before they arrived at the hotel.(即:吃饭在先,他们到达在后。)

 

 

注意:在上面两个例句,虽然表达时间的连词不同(when当……时;before在……前),但两件事发生的先后顺序很明显。请同学们不要被when, before之类的词搞混淆了,关键要抓住两件事情的先后关系。

2、表达在过去某个确定的时间之前发生的事或状态。

例如:How many English films had you seen by the end of last term ?

在这个例句中,没有两个事件作比较。但是,它有一个明确的时间作参考,即last year明确了告诉我们是“过去”时间,而 by the end of last year说的是在last year之前完成的动作,因此它也是“过去的过去”,可以用过去完成时。 请同学们仔细阅读下面的例句,注意时间的先后关系和动作的先后顺序:I had finished writing my composition by 10:00 this morning.(今天上午10:00点以前,我已经写完了我的作文。)

She had searched the internet for two hours when she found an ad for the Canon digital camera.(当她找到了佳能数码照相机的广告时,她已经在因特网上查询了两个小时。)

I went over what I had written again and again so that I wouldn't make any mistakes.(我一遍又一遍地检查了我所写的内容,以至我没有出现任何错误。)

The film had already begun when I got to the cinema . ( 当我到电影院时,电影已经开始了。)

过去完成时还可以表示从过去某一时间开始,持续到过去另一时间的动作或状态。例如:

 He had worked in the factory for five years before he moved here . ( 在他搬到这儿以前,他已经在那家工厂工作了五年。)

 I saw Li Ping yesterday . We had not seen each other since I left Beijing . ( 我昨天看见李平了。自从我离开北京,我们就没见过面。)

By the time I got there, it had already finished.

When she got to the check-out, she realized she had left her purse at home.

He said he had never seen Xiao Wang before.

Ann had lived in a cottage for sixty years ever since she was born.

He arrived at 2∶30. He had been told to wait in the VIP lounge.

3、在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句。
She said (that) she had never been to Paris.
4、①when引导的从句(注:从句谓语动词为过去式)  ②by短语 ③by the time引导的从句(注:从句谓语动词为过去式)  ④before引导的从句(注:从句谓语动词为过去式)

 

简单句、复合句及并列句

1. 简单句:

(1)定义:只有一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语(或并列谓语)的句子叫简单句,如:We learn English . 我们学英语。(一个主语和一个谓语)

Both Xiao Zhang and Xiao Wang are from Beijing .

小张和小王都是北京人。(一个并列主语和一个谓语)

He once lived and worked here .

他曾经在这里居住和工作过。(一个主语和一个并列谓语)

My father and mother go to work at seven in the morning and come back home at eight in the evening . 我父母早上七点上班,晚上八点回家。(一个并列主语和一个并列谓语)

(2)分类:上次我们对简单句按照句子基本结构分出的5种类型做了阐述;另外,根据句子的功能或使用目的,简单句可分四类:陈述句、疑问句、祈使句、感叹句。

2. 并列句:

(1)定义:用并列连接词连接起来的两个或两个以上简单句叫做并列句。

(2)并列句的构成:简单句+连接词+简单句

(3)连接并列句常用的连接词:and , but , or , so , not only … but also , however , neither…nor , either…or , still等。eg.

I help her and she helps me . 我帮她,她帮我。

He is very old but he is in good health . 他年纪很大了,但他身体很好。

We must hurry or we’ll be late . 我们得赶快走,不然就晚了。

This girl did her work carefully , so she never made any mistakes .这个姑娘工作认真,从不出差错。

Jim not only wrote to me last week but also came to see me yesterday .

吉姆上星期不但写信给我,而且昨天还来看过我。

Neither could theory do without practice, nor could practice do without theory .

理论没有实践不行,实践没有理论也不行。

Either he is to blame or I am . 不是他该受责备,就是我该受责备。

注意:连接词so除起连接并列句作用外,兼有结果意味;有时so在后一句中代替前一句中某一句中成分。例如:

He can swim , so can I . 他会游泳,我也会。(so代替swim)

Iron is a kind of matter , so are water and air . 铁是一种物质,水和空气也是物质。(so在后一句中起表语作用)

3. 主从复合句

(1)定义:主从复合句是由一个主句和一个或一个以上的从句构成的。主句是句子的主体,从句可视作句子的一个成分。从句在主从复合句中可起主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语作用。从句在全句中起什么作用,就叫什么从句。

(2)状语从句:状语从句在句中起状语作用,修饰主句中的谓语动词、形容词或副词。在初中阶段我们主要学习了以下几种状语从句:

① 时间状语从句:常见引导词:when(当……时),as(一边……一边,当……时),while(在……过程中),before(在……以前),after(在……之后),since(自从……以来),till(until)(直到……,直到……才),as soon as(一……就……)等。

进入高中阶段之后,我们还会再见到另外一些常用的连接词。在由以上连接词或词组连接的主从复合句中,主句谓语动词所表示的动作和从句谓语动词所表示的动作有时是同时发生、有时是先后发生。因此,在理解和运用带时间状语从句的主从复合句时,要根据连接词所表示的不同时间意义,特别注意主句和从句的谓语动词的时态。这是掌握时间状语从句的关键。

② 原因状语从句:常由because(因为),since(既然),as(由于)等连接词引导。

eg.He didn’t hear the knocking at the door because he was listening to the radio . 他没听见敲门声,因为他正在听收音机。

Since you are free today , you had better help me with my English . 既然你今天休息,你最好帮我学习英语。

As the day was fine , they decided to go on a trip . 由于天气好,他们决定作一次短途旅行。

③ 地点状语从句:常由where(在……地方),wherever(无论……在哪儿)等连接词引导。

如:I’ll go where work conditions are difficult . 我愿意到工作条件困难的地方去。

Wherever you are , you should work for the people heart and soul .

无论你在哪里工作,你都应该全心全意为人民服务。

④ 条件状语从句:常由if(假如,如果),unless(除非)等连接词或连接词组引导。如:

If I go to the Great Wall tomorrow , would you like to come along ?如果明天我去长城,你会和我一起去吗?

He is sure to come unless he has some urgent work to do at home . 除非他家里有急事要办,不然他一定会来的。

⑤ 比较或方式状语从句:常由as…as(像…一样),than(比),the…the(越……就越),as(正如),as if(似乎,好象)等引导。如:

I know you better than she does . 我比她更了解你。

The more you practice , the more knowledge you will get . 你实践得越多,你得到的知识就越多。

You should study English as hard as Mary does . 你应该像玛丽那样努力学习英语。

The old man runs very fast as if he were a young man . 这位老人跑得很快,简单像个年轻人。(在以as if连接的从句中,谓语动词用过去式,系动词were可用于所有人称,表示虚拟语气,而不是真实情况。)

⑥ 目的状语从句:常由so(使得),that(以便),so that(为了,使得),in order that(这样……就)等来引导。如:They set out early that they might arrive at the station in time . 他们很早出发,以便及时赶到车站。

She takes notes carefully in class so that she may use them when she reviews her lessons after class . 她在课上认真记笔记,以便能在课下利用它们复习功课。

⑦ 结果状语从句:常由so(结果),so that(结果),so…that(such…that)(如此……以致……)等连接词引导。如:

Everybody lent a hand , so the work was done in time . 人人帮忙,结果工作及时完成。

He finished his homework so well that his teacher praised him in class .

他作业完成得很好,结果他的老师在班上表扬了他。

The film was so interesting that I enjoyed it very much .

这部电影这么有趣(以致于)我非常喜欢它。

It is such a heavy box that nobody can move it away . 这是一个很重的箱子,谁也搬不走。

⑧ 让步状语从句:常由though(although)(虽然……但……),even if(即使),however(不管怎样),whatever(无论什么),no matter how(who…)(不管多么……)(无论谁……)等连接词或连接词组引导。如:

He went to school , though he was ill . 虽然他病了,但还是去上学了。(注意:有(al)though的句子,就有“虽……但是”的含义,不能在主句中用but,但可接yet,still等。)

She carried on the job even if she had a bad cold . 即使她患了重感冒,她还是坚持工作。

However much I tried , I failed to work out the maths problem .

无论我怎么做,都算不出这道数学题来。

Whatever you say , I will not change my mind . 不论你怎么说,我都不会改变主意。

He keeps taking physical training in winter no matter how cold it is .

不论天气多冷,他都坚持在冬天进行体育锻炼。

No matter who asks her for help , she is ready to help . 无论谁请她帮忙,她都愿意帮助。

(3)定语从句:

在复合句中修饰名词或代词的从句叫做定语从句。被定语从句修饰的名词或代词叫做先行词,定语从句必须放在先行词之后。

引导定语从句的关系代词有who , whom , whose , which , that等。这些是我们在初中已学习过的,对于它们的用法已经在以前的讲解中多次提到过,主要掌握它们指代人还是物,在句中可以充当什么成分。

引导定语从句的关系副词有where , when , why等,这些是高中要学习的内容,在后面的讲解中我们会渗透其用法及定语从句其他内容。

(4)名词性从句:宾语从句

引导名词性从句的关联词有:连接词that , whether , if;疑问代词who , what , which , whose;疑问副词when , where , how , why等。

if和whether的区别.

(1)if和whether都可以引导宾语从句,常常可以互换,表示“是否”。如:
I don’t know whether(=if)I should tell him.
我不知道是否应该告诉他。
(2)但两者也有微妙的差别,请注意 whether可与or not连用,而if不可以在句首时用whether,而不用if;在介词后用whether,而不用if;表示“如果”时用if,而不用whether。如:
I don’t know whether he will come or not. 我不知道他是否会来。
Whether you take part in or not the result will be the same. 你参不参加结果都是一样的。
It depends on whether he can solve the problem. 那取决于他能否解决这个问题。
He can’t decide whether to visit her or not. 他决定不出是否去看她。
Whether he will come is still a question. 他是否会来还是一个疑问。
引语转换时的各种相应变化

(3)祈使句的间接引语

直接引语如果是祈使句,变成间接引语后,叫间接祈使句。

①祈使句表示命令时,要把直接引语的动词say变成command, order, tell等动词,被转述的部分改为动词不定式。否定祈使句改为not to do结构。

“Stay where you are,” she said.  她说:“呆在原地。”

à    She told me to stay where I was.  她告诉我呆在原地。

“Don’t smoke in the room,” he said.  他说:“别在房间里抽烟。”

à     He told me not to smoke in the room. 她叫我别在房间里抽烟。

②祈使句表示请求时,常把直接引语的动词say变成ask, beg, request, urge等动词。

She said to me, “Please wait till I return, will you?”  她说:“请你一直等到我回来,好吗?”

à     She begged me to wait till she returned.  她请求我一直要等到她回来。

③以Let’s开头的祈使的句,通常将引述动词改为suggest,然后再接that从句。

John said to Bill, “Let’s go hiking tomorrow.”约翰对比尔说,“我们明天去徒步旅行吧。”

à     John suggested to Bill that they (should) go hiking the next day.        约翰向比尔提议第二天去徒步旅行。

(1)动词时态的变化

① 如果引述动词为现在时态,间接引语的动词可以保持原来的时态。

He says, “I have been writing a novel.”    他说:“我一直在写一本小说。”

à    He says that he has been writing a novel.   他说他一直在写一本小说。

② 如果引述动词为过去时态,间接引语中的时间就要往后推,即现在时间推至过去时间,过去时间推至过去的过去,将来时间推至过去将来时间。具体变化见下表:

 


直接引语时态

间接引语时态

一般现在时

一般过去时

现在进行时

过去进行时

现在完成时

过去完成时

现在完成进行时

过去完成进行时

一般过去时

过去完成时

过去完成时

过去完成时

一般将来时

过去将来时

将来进行时

过去将来进行时


 

           直接引语

            间接引语

today

that day

this morning/ afternoon/evening

that morning / afternoon / evening

yesterday

the day before, the previous day

yesterday morning /afternoon etc.

the previous morning / afternoon etc.

the morning before, the afternoon before

the day before yesterday

two days before

tomorrow

the next day, the following day

the day after tomorrow

in two days’ time, two days after

next week / month / year etc.

the next week / month / year, etc.

the following week / month / year etc.

last night / month / year, etc.

the previous night / month / year etc.

the night before, the month before etc.

two weeks / months / years ago

the weeks before, two months before

now

then

so far

by then

in 1990

in 1990

here

there

 

 

 

初中英语时态语态练习100题

1. The sun ________ in the east.

A. is always rising     B. always is rising     C. rises always     D. always rises

2. He often ________ his clothes on Sundays.

A. washing     B. washes     C. has washed     D. wash

3. I’m Japanese. Where ________ from?

A. do you come     B. you are coming     C. you come     D. are you coming

4. A mother who ________ her son will do everything for his happiness.

A. is loving     B. loves     C. loved     D. has loved

5. ________ at a higher temperature than water?

A. Has milk boiled     B. Is milk boiling     C. Does milk boil     D. Was milk boiling

6. He signed to us with his hand, “The lesson is over. You ________.”

A. dismissed    B. are dismissed     C. have dismissed    D. were dismissed

7. I haven’t met him for ages, but his mother ________ him sometimes.

A. had still seen     B. still sees     C. has still seen     D. still saw

8. We will start as soon as our team leader________ .

A. comes     B. will come     C. come     D. is coming

9. I think Jack ________ the answer.

A. has known     B. does know     C. is knowing     D. knows

10. My father ________ George quite well; they were introduced at a party.

A. is knowing     B. was knowing     C. knows     D. had been knowing

11. Where ________ ?

A. Mary works     B. works Mary     C. does Mary works     D. does Mary work

12. I think this question ________ to answer.

A. easy     B. is easy     C. was easy     D. Both A and B

13. ________ oil or butter when you cook it ?

A. Do you use     B. Did you use     C. Were you using     D. Have you used

14. I ________ some newspaper at seven yesterday evening.

A. am reading     B. read     C. was reading     D. will read

15. Now he ________ a book about New York. I don’t think he will finish it.

A. writes     B. wrote     C. has written     D. is writing

16. Zhang Hua does a lot of housework every evening, but now he ________ his schoolmates with their lessons.

A. help     B. is helping     C. helps     D. has helped

17. Mother washes the girl’s hair. Look, she ________ .

A. is washing it now     B. washes it    

C. is washing them now     D. washes them now

18. He usually listens to the radio, but at the present moment he ________ television.

A. watches     B. is watching     C. has watched     D. had watched

19. How long ago ________ playing with soldiers?

A. have you stopped     B. had you stopped     C. did you stop     D. do you stop

20. Look at John! What ________ ?

A. does he     B. he is doing     C. is he doing     D. does he do

21. It ________ hard when I left my house.

A. is raining     B. rains     C. was raining     D. will rain

22.The railway ________ in three years.

A. is complete     B. will completed     C. has completed     D. will be completed

23. Don’t talk so loudly. Your father ________ .

A. sleeps     B. is sleeping     C. slept     D. had slept

24. ----- What are you doing under the table?

----- I ________ to find my pen.

A. tried     B. had tried     C. try     D. am trying

25. Jane and Tom ________ the door.

A. are walking at     B. walk at     C. walks to     D. are walking to

26. How many people does the doctor know ________ of the disease?

A. are dying     B. is dying     C. has died     D. dies

27. He ________ thin.

A. was getting     B. is getting     C. will getting     D. had been got

28. Our team ________ every match so far this year, but we still have three games to play.

A. was winning     B. has won     C. had won     D. wins

29. I shall tell you what he ____at three o’clock yesterday afternoon.

A. has done     B. has been done     C. had been doing     D. was doing

30. I ________ my homework now.

A. finish     B. finished     C. have finished     D. had finished

31. I ________ this coat for very long. It still looks quite new.

A. wasn’t having     B. haven’t had     C. hadn’t     D. haven’t been having

32. ________ reading the book yet?

A. Have you finished     B. Were you finishing    

C. Had you finished     D. Are you finishing

33. The evening party ________ .You are a little late.

A. just began     B. just has begun     C. has just begun     D. has begun just now

34. The dog is still wet. It ________ out of the rain.

A. only just comes     B. has only just coming    

C. was only just come     D. has only just come

35. Where did you study before you ________ to this middle school?

A. come     B. came     C. are coming     D. will come

36. He ________ home for nearly three weeks.

A. has gone away from     B. has left     C. has been away from     D. went away from

37. ----- Did your brother go to America last year?     ----- ________ .

A. No, he has never go there     B. No, he has never gone here

C. No, he never was there     D. No, he’s never been there

38. My uncle ________ in that factory since 1958.

A. worked     B. had worked     C. is working     D. has worked

39. I ________ her since she was a little girl.

A. knew     B. know     C. had known     D. have known

40. He ________ for three years.

A. has joined     B. has been in the army     C. joined     D. has served the army

41. His grandfather ________ for thirty years.

A. died     B. was dead     C. has been dead     D. has died

42. I ________ a college student for more than a year.

A. became     B. have become     C. was     D. have been

43. I ________ this radio for two years.

A. used     B. use     C. have used     D. am used

44. I ________ from my brother for a long time.

A. not have heard     B. have not heard     C. have heard not     D. do not hear

45. Since you don’t want to go, I ________ alone.

A. will go     B. go     C. went     D. have gone

46. He________ his watch. Have you seen it anywhere?

A. lost     B. lose     C. has lost     D. had lost

47. I ________ the exhibition on the life and work of Lenin.

A. see     B. saw     C. have seen     D. am seeing

48. When I was a little boy my father ________ me the earth is round.

A. tells     B. has told     C. had told     D. told

49. You ________ your homework..

A. haven’t done     B. have doing     C. have not doing     D. not done

50. Our teacher ________ to Beijing three times.

A. went     B. had done     C. has gone     D. has been

51. It’s time you ________ a holiday.

A. had     B. have     C. will have     D. have had

52. The young engineer he ________ is a friend of his.

A. is talking     B. is going to talk     C. talked     D. is talking to

53. He ________ in Shanghai in 196o.

A. lives     B. lived     C. has lived     D. is living

54. Robert ________ in England a few weeks ago.

A. arrives     B. has arrived     C. could arrive     D. arrived

55. How long ago ________ in Fujian?

A. has he arrived     B. did he arrive     C. could he arrive     D. arrived

56. Jack ________ a letter to his parents last night.

A. writes     B. wrote     C. write     D. has written

57. His parent did not know why ________ his homework.

A. did he not do     B. did he not to do

C. he had not done     D. he had done not

58. Last week John ________ his leg.

A. felt and broken     B. fell and broke

C. feels and breaks     D. fallen and broken

59. Wang Jinsi ________ the whole nation as Iron Man.

A. was known by     B. is known to     C. knew     D. has known

60. They ________ to a new house last month.

A. moves     B. move     C. moved     D. have moved

61. I’ll let you know as soon as he ________ .

A. arrives     B. will arrive     C. arrive     D. reach

62. ________ last year and is now earning his living as a newsboy.

A. He left the school     B. He has left the school

C. He had left school     D. He left school

63. Mike is now in New York. He ________ there since six days ago.

A. was     B. is     C. had been     D. has been

64. Yesterday Mary ________ to me with a problem.

A. came     B. goes     C. went     D. come

65. Where ________ yesterday?

A. went you     B. was you     C. have you been     D. were you

66. Yesterday a man ________ my car.

A. hite     B. hat     C. hitted     D. hit

67. The sun ________ when we got there.

A. raised     B. had raised     C. had risen     D. rises

68. When did you ________ to see me last?

A. go     B. went     C. came     D. come

69. ________ the news last night?

A. Heard you     B. Did you heard     C. Did you hear     D. Were you hear

70. This book ________ everybody.

A. is known by     B. is known for

C. is known to     D. knows

71. I am sure he’ll come to see me before he ________ Beijing.

A. leave     B. left     C. will leave     D. leaves

72. Jack ________ his thick coat because it was snowing.

A. puts on     B. put on     C. takes on     D. took on

73. He ________ his coat and went out.

A. takes on     B. put on     C. takes on     D. took on

74. How many people ________ the lecture on basic chemistry?

A. attended     B. is attending     C. do they attend     D. did attend

75. Look at the clock! It’s time ________ home.

A. we’ll go     B. we went     C. we’re going     D. we should go

76. He ________ you later.

A. will see     B. may will see     C. wills see     D. will sees

77. ________ breakfast in the morning?

A. Will she be     B. Will she cooks     C. Will she cook     D. Will she be cook

78. You ________ her again in a few days.

A. will see     B. have seen     C. had seen     D. have been seen

79. My parents ________ me to become a doctor.

A. hoped     B. wanted     C. decided     D. suggested

80. If we study hard, ________ .

A. we had passed the exam     B. We are passing the exam  

C. we have passed the exam     D. we will pass the exam

81. She has been here ________ .

A. after 1978     B. for 1978     C. in 1978     D. since 1978

82. Your shirt is dirty. ________ it for you?

A. Am I going to wash     B. Will I wash     C. Am I washing     D. shall I wash

83. ----- The clock is slow.

----- It isn’t slow, it ________ .

A. is stopping     B. will stop     C. has stopped     D. stopped

84.They wanted to know when they ________ have an examination.

A. had gone to     B. were going to     C. would be going     D. had been going

85. My sister ________ to see me. She’ll be here soon.

A. comes     B. is coming     C. had come     D. came

86. When ________ , I’ll talk to him.

A. does Peter come     B. Peter will come     C. Peter comes     D. can Peter come

87. He will pay a visit to the exhibition when he ________ time.

A. has     B. will have     C. has     D. is going to have

88. I will go home for the vacation as soon as I ________ my exams.

A. will finish     B. finish     C. finishing     D. finished

89. If ________ , we’ll stay at home.

A. it will rain     B. it’s to rain     C. it rains     D. it’ll be raining

90. It ________ hard when we left.

A. is raining     B. has rained     C. was raining     D. rained

91. What ________ when I saw you yesterday?

A. did you do     B. were you doing     C. you were doing     D. you did

92. Bill said that he ________ his homework at half past seven yesterday evening.

A. did     B. was doing     C. will do     D. has done

93. They ________ a meeting from 2 to 4 yesterday afternoon.

A. were having     B. had     C. would have     D. have

94. Yesterday afternoon some students ________ wheat on the farm.

A. had sowing     B. sowed     C. have sown     D. were sowing

95. She ________ at seven o’clock this morning.

A. is writing     B. write     C. writes     D. was writing

96. By the end of last term we ________ English for two years.

A. have studied     B. have been studied     C. would studied     D. had studied

97. He ________ quite a lot in his work.

A. use to travel     B. is used to travel     C. used to travel     D. was used to travel

98. He ________ out when somebody called at his office.

A. has just gone     B. had just gone     C. just went     D. just now went

99. When the teacher came into the classroom, the pupils ________ their exercises.

A. have done     B. were doing     C. are doing     D. has done

100. When we arrived, the dinner ________ .

A. already began     B. has already begun    

C. had already begun     D. was just begun

 

 

 

 

1. D 2. B 3. A 4. B 5. C 6. B 7. B 8. A 9. D 10. C 11. D 12. D 13. A 14. C 15. D 16. B 17. A 18. B 19. C 20. C

21. C 22. D 23. B 24. D 25. D 26. A 27. B 28. B 29. D 30. C 31. B 32. A 33. C 34. D 35. B 36. C 37. D 38. D 39. D 40. B

41. C 42. D 43. C 44. B 45. A 46. C 47. C 48. D 49. A 50. D 51. A 52. D 53. B 54. D 55. B 56. B 57. C 58. B 59. B 60. C

61. A 62. D 63. D 64. A 65. D 66. D 67. C 68. D 69. C 70. C 71. D 72. B 73. B 74. A 75. B 76. A 77. C 78. A 79. B 80. D

81. D 82. D 83. C 84. B 85. B 86. C 87. A 88. B 89. C 90. C 91. B 92. B 93. A 94. D 95. D 96. D 97. C 98. B 99. B 100C  

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